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Sydney Children's Hospitals Network A range of factsheets on health and safety topics have been developed by Sydney Children's Hospital, The Children's Hospital at Westmead and Kaleidoscope Hunter Children’s Health Network. They aim to help you learn about your child’s illness and ways you can help improve their overall health and wellbeing, The fact sheets are for educational purposes only. Please consult with your doctor or other health professional to make sure this information is right for your child. https://www.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/ en Health Copyright - New South Wales Ministry of Health for and on behalf of the Crown in right of the State of New South Wales webmaster.schn@health.nsw.gov.au http://www.rssboard.org/rss-specification Thu, 23 Feb 2023 18:59:54 +1100 Thu, 06 Apr 2023 16:51:29 +1000 Abdominal Organs Injuries (Spleen, Liver and Kidney) http://www.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/fact-sheets/abdominal-organs-injuries-spleen-liver-and-kidney <h2 id="Where_are_these_organs_located_in_the_body">Where are these organs located in the body?</h2> <p>The spleen is on the left side of the tummy, under the ribcage.</p> <p>The liver is on the right side of the tummy, under the ribcage, on top of the stomach, right kidney and intestines.</p> <p>The kidneys are located towards the back, one on either side of the spine, below the ribcage.</p> <p><img src="https://www.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/files/factsheets/image_1.jpg" alt="" /></p> <p><img src="https://www.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/files/factsheets/image_2_0.jpg" alt="" /></p> <h2 id="What_causes_these_injuries">What causes these injuries?</h2> <p>Spleen, liver or kidney injury can occur when there has been trauma to the area of the tummy where these organs are located. In kids, this may happen after a car, bicycle or skateboard crash, following a fall from a height, during contact sports, or after an awkward fall. A knock to the tummy can cause a bruise or a cut within the organ causing it to bleed. With Kidney injury, there is also risk of urine leaking and collecting around the kidney. </p> <h2 id="Symptoms_of_abdominal_organ_injury">Symptoms of abdominal organ injury:</h2> <ul><li>Tummy pain or back pain</li> <li>Pain across the shoulders</li> <li>Looking pale, and sleepy</li> <li>Feeling dizzy</li> <li>Nausea or vomiting</li> <li>Pink or red urine meaning blood is in the urine</li> </ul><h4><strong>Please go to the nearest Emergency Department if your child displays any of the above symptoms following a knock to the tummy.</strong></h4> <h2 id="How_are_these_injuries_diagnosed">How are these injuries diagnosed?</h2> <p>Injuries to these organs can be difficult to notice at first, especially if there is no bruising to the tummy, and the blood pressure is normal. </p> <p>In the Emergency Department, an ultrasound can be used to see if there is fluid in your child’s tummy; this is called a FAST scan</p> <p>If injury to one of these organs is suspected, your child may then need a computerized tomography scan (CT scan). Any injury found to one of these organs is usually given a grade – from grade 1 (low, mild) to grade 5 (high, serious).</p> <h2 id="How_are_these_injuries_treated">How are these injuries treated?</h2> <p>Your child will be admitted to hospital. The treatment and length of stay will depend on how serious the injury is. Most children with injuries to these organs are treated with a drip, pain medication, rest, restricted diet, breathing exercises and sometimes a urine catheter may be needed.</p> <p>Your child will be monitored closely and require regular blood tests to see how the injured organ is functioning and if it is still bleeding or not. Blood pressure monitoring will detect high blood pressure, which can happen after kidney injury.</p> <p>It is rare for a child with an injury to the spleen, liver and/or kidney to need an operation. However, your doctor will discuss this with you, if necessary.</p> <p>The doctor will decide when you can take your child home, depending on their level of pain and discomfort, if they are eating and drinking and if they have done a poo.</p> <h2 id="Care_at_home">Care at home</h2> <p>You will be given specific discharge instructions with advice on pain relief and safe level of activity.</p> <p>Activities should be gentle, such as board games, walks, craft and some screen time. This means, no wrestling, rough play, climbing, jumping on the bed or any physical activity that could lead to a hit in the abdomen.</p> <h2 id="When_can_my_child_return_to_school">When can my child return to school?</h2> <p>Your child should rest at home until they are feeling back to normal. They can usually return to school 1-2 weeks after the injury. It is important to check with your child's doctor first.</p> <h2 id="When_can_my_child_return_to_sports">When can my child return to sports?</h2> <p>Your child should not return to sport, bike riding, skateboards, trampolines and high impact activities until your doctor gives the go-ahead. This will usually be 1-2 months after the injury, but may be longer for more severe injuries. This is because the risk of getting knocked in the tummy again, while still healing, is high.</p> <p>You will be given specific discharge instructions detailing returning to sports.</p> <h2 id="Follow_up">Follow up</h2> <p>The Trauma Nurses will call you 2 weeks after you have gone home to follow up.</p> <p>In some cases, you may need to attend a follow up appointment for a progress check or scan 4-6 weeks later, but you will be told before going home.</p> <p>Following a kidney injury, your child may need to have their blood pressure checked at the GP for some time after being discharged from the hospital.</p> <h2 id="If_any_of_the_following_symptoms_occur_after_your_child_goes_home_please_return_to_the_Emergency_Department_or_call_an_Ambulance_000">If any of the following symptoms occur after your child goes home, please return to the Emergency Department or call an Ambulance (000):</h2> <ul><li>Fever</li> <li>Increasing pain</li> <li>Pale or dizzy</li> <li>Vomiting</li> <li>Worsening shoulder pain</li> <li>Jaundice (yellowing of skin/eyes)</li> <li>Blood in the urine, stool or vomit</li> <li>Further injury to the abdomen</li> </ul><h2 id="Remember">Remember</h2> <ul><li>Most injuries to the spleen, liver or kidney settle down without the need for an operation. A period of time in hospital and a quiet few weeks will help ensure a full recovery.</li> <li>It is important to follow your discharge instructions including rest periods and gentle activity to allow the organ to fully heal and reduce the chance of bleeding starting up again.</li> </ul> Injury | Accident | Poisoning Kidney | Urinary Liver | Hepatology https://www.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/files/factsheets/abdominal_organs_injuries_spleen_liver_and_kidney-en.pdf 99381 Tue, 15 Feb 2022 18:03:07 +1100 Sydney Children's Hospitals Network Abdominal Pain (Stomach Ache) http://www.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/fact-sheets/abdominal-pain-stomach-ache <h2 id="What_is_it">What is it?</h2> <p>Abdominal pain is very common in children and there are many causes. Most abdominal pain is not due to a serious illness, and children usually get better on their own. </p> <h2 id="What_causes_it">What causes it?</h2> <p>Pain can come from any structure in the abdomen including the stomach, bowel, kidneys, bladder and other organs. Even severe abdominal pain does not always mean your child is suffering from a serious illness. Severe pain can be associated with mild illnesses such as wind pain from drinking or eating too much or cramping from constipation or a viral infection. Some children get abdominal pain as a result of stress.</p> <p>The exact cause of pain is often not found, and will often get better by itself with simple pain relief and time. There are however, some serious illnesses that can start with mild abdominal pain.</p> <h2 id="What_are_the_symptoms_like">What are the symptoms like?</h2> <p>Abdominal pain can happen suddenly or develop slowly. Your infant or young child may cry and pull their knees up towards their chest when they have an abdominal pain. Nonetheless, these symptoms may also be unrelated to abdominal pain. They may also have other symptoms that are associated with the cause of the pain, such as vomiting, diarrhoea and/or fever.</p> <h2 id="When_should_you_contact_your_local_doctor_immediately">When should you contact your local doctor immediately?</h2> <p>If:</p> <ul><li>the pain is severe and lasts for a long period (such as over several hours) made worst by movement or wakes your child up from sleep at night.</li> <li>the pain returns often and regularly.</li> <li>‘cramping pains’ that come and go.</li> <li>your child has a fever (higher than 38.5oC).</li> <li>your child has a rash that isn’t getting better.</li> <li>your child appears very pale.</li> <li>your child has persistent vomiting or if any vomit is green or contains blood.</li> <li>your child’s poo becomes black or red (which could be blood).</li> <li>your child becomes very tired or drowsy.</li> <li>your child has severe pain elsewhere.</li> <li>your child has swelling of the abdomen or lump(s) in the groin.</li> <li>your child has pain when they pass urine or if the urine contains blood.</li> <li>the pain is after an abdominal injury (such as a sports injury).</li> <li>in boys: there is pain in the scrotum or testicle or the groin area.</li> <li>your child does not seem to be getting better.</li> </ul><h2 id="What_can_you_do_for_your_child_at_home">What can you do for your child at home?</h2> <ul><li>See if your child will lie down & rest.</li> <li>Encourage your child to drink plenty of clear fluids (give small amounts frequently).</li> <li>If they don’t want to eat, don’t force them.</li> <li>Encourage your child to sit on the toilet; sometimes doing a poo helps the pain.</li> </ul><p>Often abdominal pain will get better all by itself, with time and simple pain relief.</p> <p>Do not give your child any medications other than simple pain relief medication, such as paracetamol, without first talking to your doctor.</p> <p>Give your child the dose that is recommended on the packaging for their age and weight.</p> <h2 id="Remember">Remember:</h2> <ul><li>Abdominal pain is very common in childhood.</li> <li>The cause for the pain (sometimes even when it is severe pain) is often not found.</li> <li>Encourage plenty of clear fluids and do not force your child to eat.</li> <li>Do not give your child any medications without first talking to your doctor.</li> <li>Contact your local doctor immediately if you are concerned.</li> <li>For afterhours GP help, call Healthdirect 1800 022 222 </li> </ul> Common childhood illness https://www.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/files/factsheets/abdominal_pain_stomach_ache-en.pdf 10018 Wed, 27 Apr 2011 13:56:42 +1000 Sydney Children's Hospitals Network Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) http://www.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/fact-sheets/abusive-head-trauma-aht <p>Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) is a form of non-accidental brain injury. Shaken Baby Syndrome is a type of AHT.</p> <p>A baby’s head is big and heavy compared to the rest of its body. Unless supported, the head flops around because the neck muscles aren’t yet strong enough to hold it still. When a baby is shaken their head is thrown back and forth very quickly with great force. This force may cause tiny blood vessels inside the baby’s brain to tear and bleed, resulting in one or more of the following:</p> <ul><li>blindness or deafness</li> <li>seizures</li> <li>developmental delays</li> <li>learning difficulties</li> <li>impaired intellect</li> <li>memory and attention problems</li> <li>serious other health conditions such as cerebral palsy</li> <li>death</li> </ul><p>They types of injuries caused by shaking a baby don’t happen accidentally during normal gentle play.</p> <p>Throwing your baby into the air or bouncing them onto a soft surface such as a bed, even when done as a form of play, has been known to cause brain injury.</p> <p>It is important for a baby to experience cuddling, playing and doing all the things a baby really enjoys.</p> <h2 id="Why_would_anyone_shake_a_baby">Why would anyone shake a baby?</h2> <p>From clinical experience and the stories families have told health staff, it seems that the major reason babies are shaken is because a parent or carer becomes frustrated or distressed in response to a crying baby.</p> <p>Many families have stressors in their lives which reduce their capacity to manage the emotional effects of a baby’s crying.</p> <p>It is unclear what degree of force or amount of shaking can cause damage to a baby or child. Therefore, any degree of forceful movement is considered dangerous and should be avoided.</p> <p>Babies need parents, family members and carers to meet their needs for safety, comfort and nurturing.</p> <p>So remember, no matter how upset you feel... Shaking your baby is just not the deal!</p> <h2 id="Why_do_babies_cry">Why do babies cry?</h2> <p>Crying is normal. Babies can cry for up to two to three hours a day.</p> <p>Crying is the main way babies can tell us what they need.</p> <p>Finding out what your baby needs is not always easy.</p> <p>They may be:</p> <ul><li>UNCOMFORTABLE – too hot or too cold?</li> <li>HUNGRY – maybe another feed</li> <li>UPSET or SCARED – comfort and soft words</li> <li>UNWELL – teething, wind or be running a temperature</li> <li>LONELY – sometimes your baby will just want to be comforted</li> <li>STARTLED – they may just need to be resettled cuddling for a while</li> <li>INJURED</li> </ul><h2 id="How_to_Cope_with_a_Crying_Baby">How to Cope with a Crying Baby</h2> <p>"Step Back, STOP and THINK!"</p> <p>If you have made all the obvious checks (hunger, change, thirst) and your baby just won’t stop crying, try:</p> <ul><li>Another feed – your baby may still be hungry</li> <li>Offer your baby a dummy or another safe comfort object or toy</li> <li>If you are feeling calm, hold your baby close to your chest so the baby can feel the beat of your heart</li> <li>Sing or talk gently to your baby</li> <li>Gently rub or massage your baby</li> <li>Take your baby for a walk in the fresh air</li> <li>Wrap your baby in a small soft sheet so the baby feels secure and try to settle your baby in a safe, dark and quiet place.</li> </ul><p>If you are finding it difficult to cope or just want some new ideas, try calling a relative or friend, or contact your family doctor, local hospital or your Early Childhood Nurse.</p> <p>For support and advice, call a parent helpline such as</p> <ul><li> <strong>Health direct Telephone Help Line (1800 022 222), </strong> </li> <li> <strong>Tresillian Telephone Help Line (1800 637 357), or the</strong> </li> <li> <strong>Karitane Telephone Help Line (1800 677 961).</strong> </li> </ul><p>Asking for help is a sign of coping</p> <p>Remember, no matter how upset you feel, Shaking your baby is just not the deal!</p> <h2 id="Remember">Remember:</h2> <ul><li>Crying babies are not bad.</li> <li>A baby's brain is very fragile. Never shake your baby.</li> <li>All babies are potential victims.</li> <li>ANYONE from ANYWHERE can potentially lose control, and be capable of shaking a baby or child.</li> <li>Crying is a 'normal' part of infancy.</li> <li>Getting frustrated or distressed about a crying baby is normal. It is the adult’s job to be calm.</li> <li>There are strategies that may help to soothe a baby.</li> <li>Please also see</li> </ul><p><a href="https://www.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/parents-and-carers/fact-sheets/the-crying-baby">‘The Crying Baby’ Factsheet at: </a><a href="https://www.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/parents-and-carers/fact-sheets/the-crying-baby">www.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/parents-and-carers/fact-sheets/the-crying-baby</a></p> <p>or the <a href="http://kidshealth.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/crying-baby">Shaken Baby Prevention Project website</a> for more support and information: <a href="http://kidshealth.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/shaken-baby">http://kidshealth.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/shaken-baby</a> </p> Babies | Newborns | Infants Brain | Spinal cord | Neurology Injury | Accident | Poisoning https://www.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/files/factsheets/abusive_head_trauma_aht-en.pdf 10219 Tue, 17 Jul 2012 09:21:47 +1000 Sydney Children's Hospitals Network